Category: Economic statistics
Area: Domestic trade
Survey / data collection: Turnover in wholesale trade

MONSTAT metadata
Reference metadata
  1. Contact
  2. Metadata update
  3. Statistical presentation
  4. Unit of measure
  5. Reference period
  6. Institutional mandate
  7. Confidentiality
  8. Release policy
  9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy and reliability
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and Comparability
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment

Note: For any question on metadata, please contact MONSTAT metadata support.

                                                                                     1. Contact                                                                           Vrh
1.1. Contact organization: Statistical Office of Montenegro - MONSTAT
1.2. Contact organization unit: Department for short-term indicators
1.2. Contact organization unit: IV Proleterske 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro

                                                                                      2. Metadata update                                                                       Top
2.1. Metadata last certified:17/11/2023
2.2. Metadata last posted:29 December 2023
2.3. Metadata last update:17/11/2023

                                                                                3. Statistical presentation                                                                  Top
3.1. Data description:The aim of survey is to evaluate the total turnover of the wholesale trade by commodity groups. The data are used to monitor volume and dynamics of turnover trends; to analyse the effects of trade policy measures; to analyse scope and structure of turnover in wholesale trade by commodity group.
3.2. Classification system:NACE Rev2 COICOP
3.3. Sector coverage:Reporting units are all enterprises (companies) whose main activity is trade and who are in the Statistical Business Register registered in the area of 46 NACE Rev2. Enterprises with turnover = 0 are excluded. Data are broken down by turnover size of statistical units (enterprises). Five classes are applied in accordance with accounting standards: Class 1: 0 - 24 999 Euro Class 2: 25 000 - 199 999 Euro Class 3: 200 000 - 999999 Euro Class 4: 1 000 000 - 4 999 999 Euro Class 5: more than 5 000 000 Euro
3.4. Statistical concepts and
Indices of turnover in wholesale show the dynamics of the value of turnover in wholesale trade in the territory of Montenegro. Wholesale trade includes activities in the field of 46 KD NACE Rev2. The wholesale trade involves the sale of new or used goods, without processing, for further sale or processing, and sales of major consumer goods for their own consumption.
3.5. Statistical unit:For wholesale trade survey the reporting and observation unit are the same. Units of statistical observation and reporting for which data are provided, are enterprises with main activity in the Statistical Business Register is in Division 46 NACE Rev2.
3.6. Statistical population:The sample frame was based on the data from the Statistical Business Register and includes all active businesses in the wholesale area 46 NACE Rev2. Enterprises with turnover = 0 are excluded. The stratification of the sample is done on the base of class and group of companies. Classes are determined by turnover of companies: Class 1: 0 - 24 999 Euro Class 2: 25 000 - 199 999 Euro Class 3: 200 000 - 999999 Euro Class 4: 1 000 000 - 4 999 999 Euro Class 5: more than 5 000 000 Euro. The sample includes all companies in the class 4 and 5 and the rest is determined by random sampling. Groups are determined by activity of enterprise (NACE Rev2): GROUPS ACTIVITY (KD_NACE_Rev2) 1- 461; 2-462; 3-463; 4-464; 5-465; 6-466; 7-467; 8-469
3.7. Reference area:The whole territory of Montenegro.
3.8. Time coverage:Wholesale data have been produced for more than 50 years, but since 2006 they have been working according to the new methodology. By 2006, all businesses engaged in wholesale were included in the sample, regardless of the activity they are registered in. Since 2006, only companies that are registered in the 46 NACE Rev 2 (wholesale) sector are in the sample frame. Since 2006 there has been no interruption of the series.
3.9. Base period:The base year is previous year.

                                                                                      4. Unit of measure                                                                        Top
Turnover - in EUR. Changes compared to the previous periods ? indices numbers.

                                                                                     5. Reference period                                                                       Top

                                                                                  6. Institutional mandate                                                                    Top
6.1. Legal acts and other
The Law on Official Statistics and Official Statistical System (Official Gazette of Montenegro No 18/12 and 47/19) defines provisions for collection, processing, and dissemination of data. The Law provides to the Statistical Office legal powers to collect and access the data necessary for the implementation of Programme and Annual Plan. The Law gives a priority to the use of administrative data and right of access to individual data that are a result of survey of other official statistical producers. As an annex to legal provisions, Statistical Office has signed several memoranda on cooperation with administrative data providers.
6.2. Data sharing:Signed agreement on cooperation with the official statistical producers: 1. Revenue and customs Administration 2. Ministry of Finance 3. Central Bank of Montenegro 4. Trilateral agreement (MONSTAT, Ministry of Finance, and Central Bank of Montenegro) International institutions: 1. EUROSTAT 2. UN organizations 3. IMF 4. World Bank

                                                                                        7. Confidentiality                                                                          Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy:Articles 53-60 of the Law on Official Statistics and Official Statistical System (Official Gazette of Montenegro No 18/12 and 47/19) provide a framework for protection, use, and transmission of confidential data. MONSTAT has produced two comprehensive rulebooks that cover the procedures for individual data protection as well as keeping individual records. With purpose of the meeting legal framework on functioning of security system and statistical confidentiality there was adopted the Rulebook on Keeping Statistical Data by which Manner, Time, Technical Conditions and Organization of Statistical Data Storage to Prevent Their Destroying, Misappropriation, and Unauthorized Use is Regulated as well as the Rulebook on Contents and Manner of Keeping Records on Users of Individual Statistical Data by which contents and manner of keeping records on users of individual statistical data is regular. Pursuant to the Article 59, an access to the confidential data is limited to persons performing duties and tasks of official statistical producer and up to the stage the data are necessary for official statistical production. Persons that performs duties and tasks within official statistical producers must sign the statement on respecting the principle of confidentiality. Law on Official Statistics and Official Statistical System is aligned with the Regulation No 223/2009 and the Regulation (EU) 2015/759 from 29 April 2015 that also regulate confidentiality provisions. The Government of Montenegro adopted the Statement on Commitment of Confidence in Official Statistics (Commitment of Confidence).
7.2. Confidentiality - data
Statistical Office staff members sign confidentiality statement on respecting data confidentiality, and for any deliberate violation of statistical data confidentiality, important legal measures are envisaged. Article 54 of the Law on Official Statistics and Official Statistical System of Montenegro (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro No 18/12, 47/19) regulates that data collected, processed, and stored for purpose of official statistics shall be considered confidential if they allow reporting units to be identified, either directly or indirectly, thereby disclosing individual information. The reporting unit directly identified means the identification of a reporting unit from its name or address, or from assigned identification number. Indirect identification means the identification of a reporting unit by the deduction, having into account all measures to identify a reporting unit. Data for the use of which reporting units gave explicit approval shall not be considered confidential.

                                                                                        8. Release policy                                                                         Top
8.1. Release calendar:The Law on Official Statistics and Official Statistical System (Official Gazette of Montenegro No 18/12 and 47/19) stipulates that official statistical producers prepare, update, and publish Statistical Release Calendar. It is published on the website of Statistical Office not later than 20 December for the next year, for all official statistical producers that includes date of releasing statistical data. Any change in date of releasing in the Calendar is published in advance in accordance with the Procedure on Unplanned Revisions.
8.2. Release calendar - access:
8.3. User access:General aim of official statistical producer is to meet the needs of users, and to make an access to statistical data to users in an understandable manner, simultaneously and under the same conditions. Statistical Office is obliged to produce and disseminate official statistics in objective, transparent and professional manner, so that all users are equally treated.

                                                                            9. Frequency of dissemination                                                             Top

                                                                                  10. Accessibility and clarity                                                                Top
10.1. News release:
10.2. Publications:Statistical Office publishes the following regular publications: 1. Statistical Yearbook, 2. Montenegro in figures, 3. Monthly statistical review. In addition to the above regular ones, Statistical Office publishes also additionally publications. Some of the most important additional publications are as it follows: 1. Women and Men in Montenegro, 2. The most often used statistical data All publication published by Statistical Office are available at the following link:
10.3. Online database:Data of wholesale trade are available on web site:
10.4. Micro-data access:The Law on Official Statistics and Official Statistical System (Official Gazette of Montenegro No 18/12 and 47/19) regulates rules under which external users can obtain an access to individual data for needs of research. Article 58 defines types of scientific and research organizations that can obtain such data. Providing individual data without identifier is possible only upon a written request of scientific and research institutions, with purpose of performing scientific and research activities as well as international statistical organizations and statistical producers from other countries. Research entity signs the agreement with Statistical Office, and it signs the statement on respecting the confidentiality principle. Official statistical producers keeps a separate records on users and purpose of using the statistical data given to these users.
10.5. Other:Not relevant.

10.6. Documentation on methodology:
Methodology of wholesale trade is available on website:
10.7. Quality documentation:The Law on Official Statistics and the Official Statistical System ("Official Gazette of Montenegro" No. 18/12 and 47/19) defines the commitment to quality, which ensures that producers of official statistics in Montenegro work and cooperate in accordance with international principles of quality of the statistical system. In accordance with the ESS Quality Declaration, Article 338 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU, Regulations 759/2015 and 223/2009 and the European Statistics Code of Practice, the following documents are adopted: 1. Quality Strategy of the Statistical Office 2. Guide for the implementation of the Quality Strategy in the Statistical Office; 3. Implementation plan

                                                                                  11. Quality management                                                                 Top
11.1. Quality assurance:Statistical Office has chosen the implementation of elements of TQM (Total Quality Management) model that foster development and improvement of functioning of: - Institution, - Official statistical result production , and - Individual. Within middle-term deadline, Statistical Office has chosen the TQM implementation through the following objectives: 1. Strong commitment to users and other interested parties, 2. Quality statistical processes and products, 3. Professional orientation of staff members, 4. Constant improvements, 5. Reduction of overburden of reporting units.
11.2. Quality assesment:Quality is monitored throughout all stages of data production, by the responsible statisticians, according to specifications for concrete surveys. Data collection, data capture and processing are usually subject to this monitoring (similarly as timeliness and punctuality). In the framework of the organization of statistical surveys, selected quality aspects are part of preparing staff involved in statistical production. Annual data of wholesale trade survey by commodity groups are used only for national purposes.

                                                                                        12. Relevance                                                                              Top
12.1. User needs:National users: - Ministries and other public administration bodies, -Local government, and -Other local government bodies. - Central bank, - Non-governmental organizations, - Students, -Researchers, - Media.
12.2. User satisfaction:The Statistical Office has adopted the Quality Management Strategy, the Guidebook to the Implementation of the Quality Management Strategy, as well as the Plan for the Implementation of the Quality Policy. In order to measure the degree to which fulfills obligations towards users and within the new quality policy, the Statistical Office conducted User satisfaction survey. The results of the survey are available on the Statistical Office website, link:
12.3. Completeness:The survey is done on the basis of a sample includes companies that are registered in 46 (by NACE Rev. 2 classification of economic activities). All national data requirements have been met.

                                                                                  13. Accuracy and reliability                                                              Top
13.1. Overall accuracy:The yearly wholesale trade survey results are based on a sample of reporting units and are subject to the usual types of errors associated with sampling techniques, as well as non-sampling errors, measurement errors, processing errors and non-response.
13.2. Sampling error:Since the survey does not include all units of a target population but rather a randomly selected sample of units, there are sample errors that may occur in estimations. A variation coefficient is a relative measure (percentage) of the accuracy of an estimate. Along with these measures, a lower and upper limit of a confidence interval is calculated.
13.3. Non-sampling error:Non-sampling errors are tied to other errors that are not related to the sample. Non-sampling errors include: Coverage errors, Measurement errors, Processing errors and Non-response errors .

                                                                              14. Timeliness and punctuality                                                          Top
14.1. Timeliness:The first results are published 6 months after the end of the reference year. Questionnaires are sent to reporting units at the beginning of the year. The deadline for replies is April 30 of current year for reference year.
14.2. Punctuality:The accuracy indicator represents the time difference between the actual data release and the planned data release. P3 = dact - dsch As for the wholesale survey, accuracy = 0, which means that the data are published in accordance with the Data Publication Calendar.

                                                                                      15. Coherence and Comparability                                                                          Top
15.1. Comparability -
Data by geographical area are not available because the wholesale trade data refer to the entire territory of Montenegro and they used for the national accounts needs.
15.2. Comparability over time:Wholesale data have been produced for more than 50 years, but since 2006 they have been working according to the new methodology. By 2006, all businesses engaged in wholesale were included in the sample, regardless of the activity they are registered in. Since 2006, only companies that are registered in the 46 NACE Rev 2 (wholesale) sector are in the sample frame. Since 2006 there has been no interruption of the series.

15.3. Coherence - cross
The data from other areas of economic statistics (Structural Business Statistics, National Accounts, Tourism statistics, etc.) are used to do cross-checking the data.
15.4. Coherence - internal:Data are internal coherent. Higher level aggregations are derived from detailed indices according to well-defined procedures.

                                                                                        17. Data revision                                                                          Top
17.1. Data revision - policy:Statistical Office has adopted the revision policy and it is available on the website
17.2. Data revision - practice:Survey on Wholesale uses regular revisions. Large and unplanned audits are only used in the specific cases defined by the revision policy.

                                                                                 18. Statistical processing                                                                 Top
18.1. Source data:Data are collected on a sample of reporting units including Statistical Business Register (SBR) in MONSTAT which are registered according to 46 NACE Rev. 2 classifications. Company filled information based on accounting records.
18.2. Frequency of data
18.3. Data collection:Data are collected by paper and e-questionnaire (mail, email or fax).
18.6. Adjustment:Not available.


                                                                                           19. Comment                                                                             Top
Not relevant.