Description of statistical domain: Censuses in every country represent the most popular statistical actions from one side, but on the other side, they are the largest and the most complex statistical surveys, both by contents and methodological solutions, and also by specific organization. The specificity of this statistical survey is especially reflected in length of tradition and historic importance of census results. 

Census of Population 

At the territory of Montenegro the first population census with characteristics of modern census was carried out in the middle of 1879 by commands of duke Nikola. In period between World War I and World War II, only two Yugoslavian population censuses were carried out, in 1921 and 1931.  After the World War II, there were carried out population census in: 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, and 2003, and then in 2011, having fulfilled the international recommendations on conducting the Census of Population every ten years.

Legal and methodological bases 

Legal basis for conducting the censuses has been defined by special laws:

Law on Census of Population, Households, and Dwellings in 2003 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro 59/00, 12/01, 38/02, and 21/03);

Law on Census of Population, Households, and Dwellings in 2011 (Official Gazette of Montenegro 41/10 from 23 July 2010, 44/10 from 30 July 2010, 75/10 from 21 December 2010).

Methodological bases for demographic statistics are covered by the following regulations:

Regulation EU763/2008; and

UNECE/ Eurostat CES Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing.

Census units are persons, households, and dwellings. The data collection is done by the interview method, and units were enumerated by the ‘door-to-door’ method. 


The Census of Agriculture
Previous censuses of agriculture at the ex-Yugoslavia territory only referred to the census of livestock, and they were carried out together with the population censuses.
Although the tradition of censuses originates from the 18th century in those areas under the Austro-Hungarian Empire (canton of Kotor and Herceg Novi), there were not carried out statistical census of livestock in Kingdom of Montenegro.
In period from 1918 to 1941 there were carried out the census of livestock in 1921, and general census of agriculture in 1931, but because of social circumstances the data processing was slowly performed.
In period from 1945 to 2007 censuses of livestock were carried out in the following years:  1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, and the general census of agriculture in 1960 containing 111 questions related to the agriculture.

The data on agriculture were also collected by the census of population, and the last one was carried out in 2003 having only 15 questions on agriculture.

Statistical Office of Montenegro – MONSTAT carried out the census of agriculture for the first time after 50 years. The census of agriculture was carried out at the whole territory of Montenegro in period from 7 to 21 June 2010.